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Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
Resource Management
Water Demand
 Water Demand Management
 Availability of Water
 Water Use & Allocation
Registration & Allocation
 Agreements, Abstraction Permits & Licenses
 Environmental Flows
 Climate Change & Impact
 Conservation and Re-use
Water Infrastructure
The Value of Water
Resource Monitoring
Research & Development



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Registration and Allocation of Water  

It is widely recognised that both countries within the Kunene River basin are affected by water scarcity. In order to allocate water resources to users effectively and equitably, there needs to be a strong legal basis governing water use and management. Water supply schemes, demand management, re-use, and recycling are important considerations for water management as is collaboration between inter-basin organisations.

Abstraction permits, compulsory licensing and water-use authorisations are methods to determine and monitor water use and allocation. A typical licensing system requires a custodian of water resources who determines their allocation. This approach has been adopted and incorporated in southern African policy in recent years. Licenses and permits can be used as a tool for controlling water use, promoting equity and protecting Environmental Flow requirements (Scholes and Biggs 2004). As physical monitoring and data gathering on water use activities is expensive to undertake and repeat on a regular basis, information gathered during licensing is often used in water use estimation.

A license to use water is issued by a responsible authority, to which a prospective user must apply. A permit is only granted after all water demands, including the environmental water demands, have been determined for a particular river or water resource to the extent possible. The total river flow minus the demands is then compared with the required environmental flow. The environmental flow is defined as “any water which is purposefully left in a river by restricting use or releasing water from an impoundment with the objective to maintain a river in a desired condition” (Scholes and Biggs 2004). All users are required to adhere to any conditions outlined in the permit and the responsible authorities of each country are required to enforce these conditions.




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Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

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