Angola Namibia About Tutorial Glossary Documents Images Maps Google Earth go
Please provide feedback! Click for details
Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
Water Governance



send a comment



Water Utilities  

Water utilities in Angola and Namibia supply drinking water and wastewater services to urban, peri-urban and rural residents as well as to the commercial and industrial sectors of the economy. Services generally include the collection and treatment of wastewater. In both countries the shift from centralised to de-centralised water management is a major issue.

Water Tanks at EPAS Huambo.
Source: AHT GROUP AG 2010
( click to enlarge )


In Angola, the National Water Policy aims to decentralise water resources management to autonomous entities at the basin, provincial and municipal levels. The provincial governments and the municipalities are responsible for supervising the water utilities on their respective levels.

The first water utilities in Angola were already established by the colonial government. During the long lasting war most of the infrastructure collapsed and rebuilding is one of the major challenges of the Angolan Government today.

Enterprises for Water and Sanitation (Empresas Provinciais or Públicas de Água e Saneamento - EPAS) exist in all four provinces of the Kunene Basin, namely in Huambo, Huila, Kunene and Namibe.

Establishment of EASC-EP

With Decree No. 1944/GAB:GPC/2010, dated 11th of November 2010, the Governor of the Kunene Province, Dr. António Didalelwa, ordered the establishment of the Installation Commission for the creation of the Water and Sanitation Company of Kunene, EP, abbreviated as EASC-EP (Empresa de Água e Saneamento do Cunene, Empresa Pública), a public company of medium size. In 2011 this utility is being established.

The Installation Commission is incumbent to:

  • Coordinate all tasks related to the effective implementation of the public utility company;
  • Create a Management Unit for EASC-EP within 30 days of the signature and publication of the decree;
  • Elaborate Statutes of the Management Unit within this referred time frame;
  • Manage the company, together with the referring commission, during its constitution phase until a final management of the company will take over;
  • Hold responsibility to the Provincial Government in relation to the management of the company; and
  • Propose feasible solutions regarding the development of the company to the responsible authorities.

The first meeting of the Installation Commission took place in December 2010, where the Management Unit was nominated to start the elaboration of a road map for the set-up of EASC-EP.

Water and Sanitation Enterprises in Huambo

In Huambo Province currently six municipal enterprises for Water and Sanitation are functional: Huambo city, Caala, Chikala-Cholohanga, Bailundo, Londuimbale and Alto Hama. Of these six, however, only three (Huambo, Chikala-Cholohanga and Caala) are fully operational. The other three enterprises lack sufficient funds, equipment and trained staff.

Brigades for Energy and Water (Brigadas de Energia e Água) in Huambo Province exist in the municipalities and localities of Ukuna, Longongo and Tchingenje. They are generally smaller and less well equipped than the aforementioned Enterprises (interviews with members of Provincial Directorate for Energy and Water in Huambo).

In February 2010 the Provincial Enterprise for Water and Sanitation of Huambo (EPASH) had 3 888 registered consumers. Until the early 1980s it had about 16 000 consumers and the enterprise aims to reach these levels once more by 2015.

The water price for private households and public institutions in Huambo is set at 23,80 Angolan Kwanza (about 0,28 US$) per m³. Every household or public institution pays an additional 40 Angolan Kwanza per month for the water meter. All connected households have their own water meter. Businesses such as hotels or industries pay 10 to 15 % more than households per m³.

The water price has not changed since 2007 and covers less than 50 % of the running costs of EPASH. An additional problem is the ability or willingness to pay for many users.

From 2012 onwards, the National Plan of Angola foresees that the EPAS will have increased independence from government (personal communication from Mr. Rodrigues Kamerman, Director of EPASH). They will be called “Empresas Públicas de Agua” (EPA - Public Water Enterprises) and will have to raise their own income for salaries, maintenance of infrastructure and reinvestment. The plan foresees that Huambo will be one of the first “pilot provinces” in Angola to have an EPA.


The national water utility in Namibia, the Namibia Water Corporation Ltd. (NamWater), was created in 1997. Its establishment was one of the main outcomes of Namibia's water sector reform.

NamWater is a commercial entity and supplies water for rural communities, delegated by the Directorate of Rural Water Supply (renamed Directorate of Water Supply and Sanitation Coordination (in the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry), as well as for municipalities and various industries. NamWater's sole shareholder is the Namibian Government, and it strives to provide its customers with a reliable source of quality water at the lowest possible rates (Source:

Extraction from the Kunene River

NamWater draws its water to supply the north central regions of Namibia with water mostly from the Calueque Weir, situated on the Kunene River in Angola. From the Calueque Pump Station the water is transported via the Calueque - Oshakati Canal to the Olushandja Dam (Namibia), from where it is eventually transferred to Oshakati as well as the Etunda Irrigation Scheme via a separate canal and to Ondjiva in Angola. Purification of the water can take place both at Olushandja Dam and at Ruacana.

Water treatment facilities of the Calueque - Oshakati Water Supply Scheme.
Source: AHT GROUP AG 2010
( click to enlarge )




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

Explore the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management applied to the Kunene