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Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
The River Basin
Climate and Weather
Water Quality
 Principles of Water Quality
 Human Impacts on Water Quality
 Agricultural Effluent & Eutrophication
 Industry and Mining
 Microbiological Organisms and Pathogens
 Heavy Metals
 Persistent Organic Pollutants
 Water Temperature
 Waste Management
Ecology & Biodiversity



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Radio-nuclides can negatively impact biota through mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, given sufficient doses over a period of time. Uptake of radioactive particles may be direct, through ingestion, or indirect through the food chain. As there is no basin-wide radio-nuclide monitoring programme, the magnitude and significance of the problem is not known, especially its transboundary effects. The causes of radio-nuclide contamination in water can mainly be ascribed to a lack of adequate environmental management and control in the mines (particularly gold and uranium) and other industrial sites where radio-active materials may be produced or stored.

Within the Kunene River basin, there is no known mine or industry that handles radioactive materials. However, several gold deposits in Huila and Kunene Province have been prospected by companies in the past (ANIP 2001). It is only a matter of time before the first gold mine will be established near the Kunene River.




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

Explore the interactions of living organisms in aquatic environments

Examine how the hydrologic cycle moves water through and around the earth