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Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
The River Basin
Climate and Weather
 Principles of Hydrology
 Water Cycle
 Surface Water
 Stream Order
 Lakes and Reservoirs
 SW/GW Interactions
 Water Balance
 Hydrology of Southern Africa
 SADC Hydrogeological Map
 Hydrology of the Kunene Basin
 Surface Water
 SW/GW Interactions
 Water Balance
Water Quality
Ecology & Biodiversity



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Hydrology is the scientific study of water, seeking to explain the water balance equation in terms of time and space, and assessing the impact of physical and chemical processes and their role in ecosystems.

The Kunene River Awareness Kit approaches Hydrology from a holistic perspective, including surface water, groundwater and the interactions between the two.

Chapter Summary

This chapter covers the following concepts and materials:

Rapids in the Upper Kunene near Gove.
Source: Vogel 2007
( click to enlarge )

Within the hydrologic cycle, rivers form the link between rainfall and snow melt over land, and waterbodies such as lakes, wetlands, and the sea. The timing, extent, and pathway of water movements are critical to biota, including people, that depend on specific sources of water. This chapter describes the processes and environmental features related to the movement of water across the landscape within a river basin.

River systems include the entire length of the main channel (from headwaters to the sea) and associated permanent or temporary wetlands (floodplains, lakes, pools, estuaries, and deltas). These components of the river system and the surrounding landscape it drains (its watershed), are interconnected and interdependent. Because of these linkages between upstream and downstream ecosystems, river basins provide a convenient and logical unit for considering and managing most environmental systems (Beekman et al. 2009).

Life on Earth is sustained by water, which is available to plants, animals and other organisms in three states: solid, liquid and gas (water vapour). The continuous movement of water on and below the earth’s surface, and between the earth and the atmosphere is known as the water cycle or hydrologic cycle. Only a small fraction of the water in the hydrologic cycle is available fresh water. Freshwater is therefore a precious resource requiring careful management and protection.




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

Explore the interactions of living organisms in aquatic environments

Examine how the hydrologic cycle moves water through and around the earth