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Resource Management
Water Demand
Water Infrastructure
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 Groundwater Services & Infrastructure
 Irrigation Infrastructure
 Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure
 Rehabilitation and Future Development
Wastewater Infrastructure
 Wastewater Infrastructure in Angola
 Wastewater Infrastructure in Namibia
The Value of Water
Resource Monitoring
Research & Development



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Wastewater Infrastructure  

Wastewater is generally defined as water that has been used and subsequently contaminated by anthropogenic influences. It can be made up of one or a combination of:

  • Liquid waste from domestic residences;
  • Commercial properties, industry; and/or
  • Agriculture.

Wastewater can further encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations.

According to the WHO sanitation refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Poor sanitation causes disease and improving sanitation has a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The WHO and UNICEF have established a system of Definitions to Monitor Sanitation Services.

Construction of improved sanitation facilities in Kunene Province.
Source: Tump 2006
( click to enlarge )

Wastewater infrastructure therefore can provide Improved Sanitation. However, it requires public works, piping and plant facilities to collect, transport and treat the wastewater from a community before releasing it back into the environment. For wastewater infrastructure to be economically feasible a minimum population density is required and for correct operation individual households generally need to have access to a reliable water supply.

Wastewater infrastructure is therefore mainly suited to towns and cities. For the most part in the Kunene basin there is a low Population Density. In less densely populated areas on-site sanitation systems such as ventilated improved pit latrines or septic tanks can provide improved sanitation and are usually more financially appropriate and functionally feasible. Two cities in the basin (Huambo and Lubango) have rudimentary sewer networks for collecting wastewater but these are old, in a general state of disrepair, are not connected to a treatment works and service only a small percentage of the urban population. Even in these urban areas, latrines and septic tanks are the dominant form of sanitation.




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