Angola Namibia About Tutorial Glossary Documents Images Maps Google Earth go
Please provide feedback! Click for details
Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
Resource Management
Water Demand
Water Infrastructure
 Dams and Associated Infrastructure
 Bulk Transfer Schemes
Groundwater Services & Infrastructure
 Groundwater in Angola
 Groundwater in Namibia
 Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater
 Irrigation Infrastructure
 Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure
 Rehabilitation and Future Development
 Wastewater Infrastructure
The Value of Water
Resource Monitoring
Research & Development



send a comment



Groundwater Services and Infrastructure  

Groundwater recharge generally decreases from north to south and from east to west across the Kunene River basin, although it is also influenced by localised favourable hydraulic properties of certain formations within the area that adds a complexity to the general trend.

High evaporation rates and the relatively steep relief in both the Upper and Lower Kunene resulting in rapid run-off results in a relatively low groundwater recharge. This ranges from around 250 mm/year to 170 mm/year in the Upper Kunene; from 170 mm/year to 80 mm/year in the Middle Kunene; and from 80 mm/year to zero in the Lower Kunene (LNEC 1996).

Groundwater recharge across the basin.
Source: AHT GROUP AG 2010 after LNEC 1996
( click to enlarge )

Despite the low rainfall and low recharge rates in the Lower Kunene a particular feature of the area is the abundance of springs in the tributaries to the Kunene.  These springs are a result of rainwater which flows slowly downwards until it encounters the impermeable, massive bedrock (Burmeister and Partners 1998).




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

View information on the dams and weirs of the Kunene Basin

Examine the virtual water trade and water footprints of SADC countries

Explore how hydroelectric dams work