Angola Namibia About Tutorial Glossary Documents Images Maps Google Earth go
Please provide feedback! Click for details
Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
Resource Management
Water Demand
 Water Demand Management
 Availability of Water
 Water Use & Allocation
 Registration & Allocation
 Environmental Flows
 EFR in National Policies
 Environmental Flow Assessment
EFR in the Basin
 Climate Change & Impact
 Conservation and Re-use
Water Infrastructure
The Value of Water
Resource Monitoring
Research & Development



send a comment



Environmental Flow Requirements in the Kunene Basin  


Nowhere have the environmental flow requirements been thoroughly assessed in Angola.


A comprehensive environmental flow assessment for the Kunene River has not yet been undertaken. However, within the frame of the Lower Kunene Hydropower Scheme feasibility study (Epupa/Baynes Project) of 1998, the maintenance of a minimum flow of approximately 20 m³ per second is assumed sufficient to support a functioning aquatic habitat in the river. This volume is also deemed sufficient to maintain the Kunene River mouth habitat (about 180 km downstream of the proposed dam site). The environmental assessment further assumes that the daily regulation of water, due to retardation and buffering effects of the long river stretch, is of little importance to the river mouth area. The minimum flow (proposed 20 m³/sec), however, is more important, since it prevents inflow of salt water to the fresh water habitat of the river mouth (NAMANG 1998).

Within the current Baynes study detailed environmental flow requirement studies are being undertaken. The results are expected to be available in 2011.

Kunene River basin near Tundavala, Angola.
Source: Kellner 2010
( click to enlarge )




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

View information on the dams and weirs of the Kunene Basin

Examine the virtual water trade and water footprints of SADC countries

Explore how hydroelectric dams work