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Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
Resource Management
 Introduction
Water Demand
 Water Demand Management
 Availability of Water
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 Registration & Allocation
 Environmental Flows
 Climate Change & Impact
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 Water Conservation
 Water Re-use
Re-use Example
 Water Harvesting
Water Infrastructure
The Value of Water
Resource Monitoring
Research & Development
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Water Re-use Example  

Direct Reclamation of Potable Water at Windhoek's Goreangab Reclamation Plant

In any discussion on direct reclamation of water for potable reuse, the names of Windhoek and its Goreangab Reclamation Plant enjoy a fair amount of recognition. The City of Windhoek was indeed the pioneer in direct potable reuse.

With a population of approximately 250 000 in 2005 Windhoek is the country's largest city. It utilizes approximately 90 % of the water consumed in Namibia's central region. The city currently relies for 70 % of its water on three surface reservoirs built on ephemeral rivers (rivers that run for only a few days at a time, after heavy rainfall events; see also section Hydrology).

In 1969, the conventional Goreangab treatment plant was converted to treat not only the surface water from the Goreangab Dam, but also the final effluent from the Gammams Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in two separate treatment trains. Thus, the Goreangab Reclamation Plant was born.

It had an initial capacity of 4 300 m³ per day. This reclaimed water was blended with water from the city's well field and was delivered as drinking water to the consumers. At this initial stage, reclamation could account for up to 25% of the City's water consumption.

In 2002 the construction of a new 21 000 m³ per day reclamation plant was completed, on a site adjacent to the old plant.

"With the new plant, Windhoek is able to incorporate the allowed maximum 35% reclaimed water into its potable water mix at all times. (...) The City of Windhoek is indeed proud of what it has achieved against the odds of natural adversity."

Source: adapted from Du Pisani 2005

Technical installation at Goreangab reclamation plant in Windhoek, Namibia.
Source: van Beuve 2008
( click to enlarge )

 

 



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