Angola Namibia About Tutorial Glossary Documents Images Maps Google Earth go
Please provide feedback! Click for details
Home The River Basin People and the River Governance Resource Management
Water Governance



send a comment



Entry Points for Integrated Water Resources Management  

The GWP (2009a) identified three main entry levels for IWRM:

  1. Local level (i.e. sub-basin plan, local aquifer management plan, local government plan);
  2. Implementation level (basin or provincial scale management plan); and
  3. Policy level (national and international processes for developing water policies, treaties and laws).

Examples of entry points for IWRM within the Kunene River basin are outlined below. Please see the section on Stakeholders to learn more about entry points for IWRM in the Kunene River basin.

Local Level

In Angola, the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEA) is responsible for supplying water to rural areas through the Provincial Directorates for Energy and Water (PDEA) and the Municipal Councils. The mobilisation section of the PDEA supports the Municipalities and local communities in creating Water and Sanitation Groups (GAS) at village level.

In nearly all Angolan provinces, including the Kunene basin, national and international NGOs support the authorities and villages in their efforts to build and strengthen the Water and Sanitation Groups. As these present the whole village, they are the ideal entry points for IWRM on a local level. In those Municipalities where representatives of the GAS meet regularly to exchange experiences and formulate their demands to the water authorities, the basis for broader stakeholder participation in the sense of IWRM is created.

In Namibia, the concept of management of water resources and water services at local level is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, through the Community Based Management (CBM) Programme and basin management approach (BMA). According to the MAWF’s Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Policy of 1993, the CBM strategy involves broad participation of users in water supply services and management by means of Water Point Associations, their representative Water Point Committees and Local Water Associations with Local Water Point Committees, while the BMA creates an opportunity for communities to be involved in water and natural resources management at basin level by establishing basin management committees.

Implementation Level

SADC promotes the development of River Basin Management Plans based on economic, environmental and social analysis and attempt to balance economic development amongst Member States (SADC 2007). SADC has prioritised stakeholder involvement through emphasising the importance of stakeholder participation in the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP) and in the Regional Strategic Action Plan (RSAP) for water (GTZ 2005).

In the Kunene Basin the ongoing bilateral agreements and infrastructure projects provide an entry point for IWRM implementation at basin level.

Policy Level

The two Kunene basin countries have signed the Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses in the Southern African Development Community (2000). The revised Protocol establishes RBOs, in different basins or part thereof to jointly manage water in an integrated manner. The SADC Regional Water Policy and Strategy is founded on the principle of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The SADC Guidelines for Strengthening River Basin Organisations published in March 2010 provide detailed guidance how to introduce and strengthen IWRM on local, implementation and policy level.




Explore the sub-basins of the Kunene River

Video Interviews about the integrated and transboundary management of the Kunene River basin

Explore the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management applied to the Kunene